Along with Phonics or the teaching of Individual sounds it is very important to make the children listen to stories and practice individual sounds in context. For example, watch this video of how to narrate a story and make the children participate in the narration, repeat after you and enjoy the whole experience. This story can be used for many sounds but especially useful for the 'r' sound. Ask the children to sing the 'rumpapum pum song' whenever you narrate that part of the story.
Singing to Learn
Let the children learn to sing simple songs and rhymes. This is the beginning stage of using the words of a new language with fun and without stress. They also learn chunks of the language and can later use it in different contexts.
Teaching Specific Sounds
Outline syllabus for teaching Phonics: https://goo.gl/jh56W1
Reading to the children & with the children: Using Big Print Books
Plan for selected Big Print Books: books.coursesuseek.com
Plan for Big Print Books Continued: https://goo.gl/k2svF2
Games & Exercises to Practise Phonics: https://bit.ly/2UGEHb2
Teaching any language should begin with oral communication activities followed by the teaching of phonics. Story books are used for such activities.
Teaching through the phonics method helps children learn the sound letter association, learn to guess the pronunciation of unknown words, read better and spell better.
In English the 26 letters of the alphabet are associated with 44 sounds. Instead of making the children learn the name of the letters it will be better to teach them the sounds the letters are associated with.
The initial consonants are taught first, not in alphabetical order. For example, /b/ is taught first because there are many words such as 'a book', 'a box', etc. the children are familiar with. Using the known words the sound /b/ is introduced and it is said as 'ba' and not 'bi'. In the same way 'c' is introduced as /k/ and not as 'see'.
Once the individual sounds are introduced, children are asked to participate in categorization activities.
Songs and poems that give practice in 'b' sound are introduced to the children. The whole activity is made contextual, enjoyable and done in a relaxed manner. Children should not feel the tension of learning one isolated sound. Everything should be in context and presented in a relaxed natural manner.
The vowels have different sounds in different contexts and they are introduced in words. For example,
after teaching the basic consonants /c/, /t/. /m/, etc. words such as 'a cat' and 'a mat' are introduced.
Here first the teacher writes on the blackboard 'c' and ask the children what it is. Then she writes 't' and ask them what it is - 'c t'.Then she draws a cat on the bb and puts 'a' two times to get 'a cat' and tells the children 'a cat'.
In the same way using known words other digraphs are introduced.
Flash Cards & Classroom Objects
Big flash cards and classroom objects are used to teach phonics. These cards and objects should have already been used in the oral communication class and the children are familiar with the names of objects and pictures.
For example, to teach /b/ (sounded as /ba/ and not /bi/) pictures such as 'a boy', 'a balloon', 'a ball' and classroom objects such as 'a box', 'a book', 'a bag', etc. are used. Each picture and object is held up for all the children to see.
First you tell the children: This is a boy.
Then you ask this question: What is it?
You present a sample response: a boy
Ask the question again: What is it?
Children respond: a boy
If children say 'boy' teacher insists that they say 'a boy'.
After showing all the pictures and objects and completing the interaction, teacher writes on the bb the letter 'b'. She writes the letter slowly talking to the children how to write the letter. She makes the children write the letter in air, with their fingers. Then she shows the pictures and objects again and repeats the interaction. This time she points out 'b..b...b..b..b' 'book' and 'b...b...b...b..b' 'box'.
The answer to the question 'What is it?' is always, a box, a book, etc. and not b..b...b...book. After saying 'a book' teacher can repeat b..b..b...b book to make the children get the idea that the initial sound is b in book, box, bench, etc. No questions such as 'What is the initial sound or first sound?' should be asked. Just from the gestures and emphasis on the way 'b' is produced, 'b' is related to 'book' and children guess that is the first sound. Later we can have 'a book' and 'a pencil' and ask, 'Is it b?' and get yes or no answer. For example, teacher shows a book and asks, 'Is it b?' children will say, 'Yes'. And teacher shows a pencil and asks, 'Is it b?' children will say, 'No'. At a later stage they will be able to say, 'No, it is p'.
The questions should be simple and the model of the answer is given by the teacher. Then the question is repeated and the answer is sought from the whole class.
The teacher can use a story book to talk about the pictures and draw the attention of the children to the 'b' words in the story.
In the next class teacher can teach 't' in the same way and have some activities where the children have to classify the pictures and tell whether they are 'b' words or 't' words.